In the rapidly expanding technological world, businesses demand highly complex applications that involve building more extensive and complex applications. However, this brings lengthy development processes; over time, it becomes difficult to maintain the codebase.
The actual demand for microservices architecture came into existence as heavy software applications using monolithic architecture can easily crash, or even a small change requires the entire application to undergo changes or testing. However, with the microservices architecture, the development of large and complex applications can be separated into smaller components, and only a tiny portion has to undergo the change.
Microservices architecture is gaining popularity in the market, and there is an increasing number of companies and businesses aspiring to implement microservices architectures in place of traditional monolithic architectures. On the other hand, they encounter the most difficulty selecting suitable tools and technology for their application development needs.
Let’s take a deeper look and understand the top 5 technologies to build microservices architecture. However, before discussing the technologies, let’s understand what Microservices architecture is?
What is Microservices Architecture?
The Microservices architecture is a software development paradigm or methodology that allows you to create fragments of a single application into several smaller independent components. Each small component operates its processes and interacts with other components through lightweight mechanisms.
The Microservices architecture promotes software application development as a group of small independent programs. Each program commands a single feature and conveys it with other programs via APIs to solve a complicated business problem. For example, one small component takes care of authentication, another – blog posts, etc.
The microservices are easily deployed individually through an automated deployment mechanism. Microservices architectures have specific programming languages built-in, use multiple data storage technologies, and require minimal management of these services.
The goal is to simplify the deployment and rapid development of high-end, cloud-ready software programs. Composing development into multiple smaller components makes scaling, modifying, and deploying easier.
Reasons to implement a microservices architecture
Monolithic architecture was frequently used for development before the popularity of microservices architecture. Still, it cannot be neglected that monolithic architecture gives a better position when working on a smaller project or codebase.
However, monolithic architecture can still be used when it comes to extensive application development, but it gives disadvantages in maintenance, accessibility between developer teams, productivity, and testing. But when it comes to the microservices architecture, it solves many above problems and gives scalability, easy maintenance, and development along different teams.
Thus, implementing microservices architecture or migration is the best option when a business or company needs complex applications to solve its problems.
Some of the explanations why the businesses require to implement or migrate to microservices architecture are:
- When working on complex applications using monolithic architecture, a large amount of code is written, and the code becomes difficult to handle as the code base grows. Hence, using a microservices architecture is more effortless and maintainable.
- In monolithic architecture, small changes force the entire application to undergo changes and deployment. However, in microservices architecture, we can change that independent component without changing and deploying the whole application.
- When changes happen, the entire application requires considerable manual testing to understand the impact of the changes in the monolithic architecture. But in microservices, Only those components undergo manual testing where changes happen.
- The complex and large application built using monolithic architecture slows the startup time.
- If developers use a monolithic architecture, the entire development team has access to the same code base, and minor modifications or interruptions in communication impact the whole application. However, in microservices architecture, a single developer or small team can work on an independent component, and modifications or changes only affect that component.
Benefits of Microservice Architecture
In any microservices architecture, an application is developed as a set of small independent components that are easy to maintain.
Microservices architecture has many advantages that force companies to implement or move from monolithic architecture to microservices architecture.
Here are some of the benefits listed below-
Small modular structure:- Microservices architecture allows an application to be broken down into smaller independent components. It becomes more comfortable for developers to maintain the code base, and they can quickly deploy or make modifications without affecting the entire application.
Scalability:-Since the microservices architecture operates on a small independent component pattern, it is easy to scale our application up and down with cloning or sharding as each small component is deployed independently.
Robustness:-Robustness means whenever the memory leak or failure in a single component happens, The application will not be affected, and other microservices will keep running.
Easy Maintainability:-Each microservice can be developed, deployed, and modified independently. In contrast, the application is broken into smaller components. Keeping the code clean and understandable for other developer teammates is easier.
Security:-Microservices provide extreme security because each microservice is isolated. A security failure of a single component does not affect the entire application.
Criteria For Choosing A Technology For Microservices
The microservices architecture allows you to build a reliable application to expand the business requirements while benefiting from diversity in programming languages. However, you have the power to use different languages and technologies for various services, but it does not mean it is effective.
While microservices architecture comes with various benefits, it also costs lots of operational overhead. Thus, using multiple languages and technologies for different services exponentially increases performance overhead. It’s suggested that you standardize your microservices architecture by choosing the appropriate technology stack or programming languages based on the business requirements.
Here are the standards to evaluate the programming language for microservices development:
- Highly observable
- Automation support
- Consumer-first approach or Priority
- Independent deployment support
- Modeled around business domain
- Component decentralization
- Continuous integration Support
Top 5 Technologies To Build Microservices Architecture
Microservices can be deployed using different tools, technology, and versions, and some of these are:
1. Docker & Kubernetes
Let’s discuss these in detail.
Docker & Kubernetes
A microservices architecture does not dictate the use of containers, but most developers find this approach helpful. Because containers take up less space, are faster to load, and are far better from an efficiency point of view than standard virtual machine (VM) environments. So you’ll need the right container technology.
Out of all container software known in the market, Docker & Kubernetes platforms have proven to be practical tools for the speedy creation of developer environments. These frameworks aim to organize multiple containers in enterprise environments and optimize deployment.
Docker is an open-source container management platform to develop, test, deploy and manage software as containerized or self-contained packages in loosely isolated environments. Docker containers are practically deployed anywhere as each is self-reliant regarding configurations and resources required to run the microservice.
Problems and intense operational complexities arise when microservices are scaled across multiple servers. Kubernetes is used as a complement to Docker to solve these complexities.
Kubernetes is a technology designed to automate the manual tasks involved in deploying and managing containerized applications that helps with scaling & scheduling. By pairing Docker and Kubernetes, we can create a flexible base for microservices infrastructure and a robust environment to increase or decrease infrastructure workload according to the requirements when scaling up or down.
Benefits of Docker & Kubernetes
- Docker is a lightweight alternative for building microservices architectures because microservices components can be packaged into a Docker image and stay isolated from others.
- You can distribute docker images using Dockerfiles, making it easier to deploy your software.
- Kubernetes pairs with Docker and solves the operational complexities that arise when microservices are scaled up or down.
Prometheus is a widespread open-source system monitoring and alerting tool developed at SoundCloud. With the help of the Prometheus tool, it is easy and feasible to implement a multidimensional data model with database servers and scrapers. Data is stored in key-value labels, and it’s pretty easy and fast to analyze the data based on labels.
Prometheus is based on a simple query language and helps in system monitoring tasks. It supports the graphical interface for efficiently visualizing information and statistics. Prometheus is widely utilized in developing minimalist applications and conforms the best in building up simple microservices.
Benefits of Prometheus
- Prometheus supports multidimensional data collection and querying, making it useful for microservices.
- It is helpful to build minimalist applications, and best serves in simple microservices.
Consul is a multi-cloud-based service networking platform that helps microservices to commute with each other. It has some outstanding features that distinguish it from others, such as:
- Consul provides support for DNS and HTTP REST API.
- Configuration files are easily auto-generated by Consul Template.
The DNS interface and Consul template provide flexibility that allows it to be used with multiple technologies. In the context of microservices, this feature enables the possibility of integrating new technologies whenever needed in the longer term.
Benefits of Consul
- Consul is entirely transparent and used without any code dependencies.
- It implements load balancing Via DNS server.
- It also helps in the configuration of microservices.
REST ( Representational State Transfer ) is a protocol that authorizes communication and interaction between microservices through HTTP. It builds RESTful APIs. It uses standard formats like JSON, XML, and HTML for responses and queries.
A more significant part of the microservices that are web applications picks REST. Upgradation to HTTP/2.0 is possible at any required time; therefore, there is no need to use protocols such as gRPC.
Benefits of REST
- It is incredibly suitable for building scalable microservice.
- The REST pattern permits the client and the server to be implemented unaided.
Redis ( Remote Dictionary Server ) is an open-source NoSQL in-memory database. It provides additional help for persevering information and reduces data duplication. Redis is built on top of Spring Boot frameworks.
Benefits of Redis
- Redis helps microservices to maintain the state while using a database.
- Depending upon the requirements, Redis can also act as a message broker or cache.
Now that you have a clear understanding of microservices architecture and the technologies that will facilitate the development of microservices. Let’s dig deeper and understand which programming language or framework is most suitable for your projects.
Best Languages or Frameworks to Implement Microservices
Remember, the microservices architecture approach means that you are free to use any language or framework suitable for a particular microservice or the entire architecture. There are different types of frameworks and languages that help you fulfill your requirement.
Some popular Languages are Python, .Net, Node JS, Java, and Golang.
Python is a high-level programming language that supports integration with various technologies. Prototyping and development in Python are more accessible and faster as compared to other frameworks and languages. Python is compatible with legacy languages such as ASP and PHP.
Python supports the RESTful API approach for communication across microservices. The RESTful API approach allows using web protocols to manipulate objects remotely.
The pairing of microservices architecture and Python helps to break down applications into components and manage them. There are various python frameworks available for web application development. Some of the best frameworks that support microservices are:
- Flask – It is a microframework based on Jinja2 and Werkzeug
- Falcom – Helps to build Smart Proxy, Cloud API, and App Back-end
- Bottle – Straightforward, lightweight, and speedy WSGI micro framework
- Nameko – Best in Python microservices framework that allows developers to focus on application logic
Node JS has become the go-to medium for enterprises and startups who wants to adopt a microservices architecture. Organizations rely on Node.js microservices for high performance, affordable cost, and increased productivity.
Node JS functionality has grown over time, and it now provides thousands of open-source libraries hosted on the npm website. This can save time and money, as sometimes required modules can be easily deployed with npm libraries.
ASP.Net and .Net framework provides excellent support for the cross-platform solution and makes web development easier via building APIs that become microservices. Its built-in Docker containers help in developing microservices. Microservices assembled with.Net can run on all the cloud stages. Further, .Net microservices can be blended with applications written in Node JS, Java, or different languages.
Java is an easy-to-read, stable, and popular programming language among developers who work with microservices because of its simple annotation syntax. Developing microservices using Java or its framework gives more benefits as it provides a user interface, model parts, and connectivity to back-end resources.
Java offers much value in readability when it comes to working with complex systems. The major Java frameworks that support building microservices architectures are DropWizard, Spring Boot, Spark, and Eclipse MicroProfile.
Golang, also known as “Go” was introduced by Google. Golang and its microservices framework are well-known for their API support and concurrency abilities. Its concurrency feature also improves the productivity of different devices. Additionally, one can quickly build microservices because its features encourage entire Golang development. Golang is suitable for vast and complex applications.
Go Micro and Go Kit are two well-known systems for developing complex microservices.
As with large corporations, many small and medium-sized business organizations are moving towards developing complex applications with the intention of migrating from monolithic systems to a single independent microservices architecture.
Furthermore, choosing the right technology and language for your microservices architecture is difficult. Anyway, more important than that, you need to understand the developer’s capabilities as technology and languages are only mediums. The skill and expertise required to build microservices lie in the developer’s team abilities and skills.
A good discussion about the requirements with the developer teams will help you to choose the right technology for your organization.